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THE ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

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THE ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION
 
We, his majesty's most loyal subjects, the delegates of the several
colonies of New-Hampshire, Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode-Island,
Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, the three lower
counties of Newcastle, Kent and Sussex on Delaware, Maryland,
Virginia, North-Carolina, and South-Carolina, deputed to represent
them in a continental Congress, held in the city of Philadelphia, on
the 5th day of September, 1774, avowing our allegiance to his
majesty, our affection and regard for our fellow-subjects in Great-
Britain and elsewhere, affected with the deepest anxiety, and most
alarming apprehensions, at those grievances and distresses, with
which his Majesty's American subjects are oppressed; and having taken
under our most serious deliberation, the state of the whole
continent, find, that the present unhappy situation of our affairs is
occasioned by a ruinous system of colony administration, adopted by
the British ministry about the year 1763, evidently calculated for
enslaving these colonies, and, with them, the British Empire. In
prosecution of which system, various acts of parliament have been
passed, for raising a revenue in America, for depriving the American
subjects, in many instances, of the constitutional trial by jury,
exposing their lives to danger, by directing a new and illegal trial
beyond the seas, for crimes alleged to have been committed in
America: And in prosecution of the same system, several late, cruel,
and oppressive acts have been passed, respecting the town of Boston
and the Massachusetts-Bay, and also an act for extending the province
of Quebec, so as to border on the western frontiers of these
colonies, establishing an arbitrary government therein, and
discouraging the settlement of British subjects in that wide extended
country; thus, by the influence of civil principles and ancient
prejudices, to dispose the inhabitants to act with hostility against
the free Protestant colonies, whenever a wicked ministry shall chuse
so to direct them.

To obtain redress of these grievances, which threaten destruction to
the lives liberty, and property of his majesty's subjects, in North-
America, we are of opinion, that a non-importation, non-consumption,
and non-exportation agreement, faithfully adhered to, will prove the
most speedy, effectual, and peaceable measure: And, therefore, we do,
for ourselves, and the inhabitants of the several colonies, whom we
represent, firmly agree and associate, under the sacred ties of
virtue, honour and love of our country, as follows:

1. That from and after the first day of December next, we will not
import, into British America, from Great-Britain or Ireland, any
goods, wares, or merchandise whatsoever, or from any other place, any
such goods, wares, or merchandise, as shall have been exported from
Great-Britain or Ireland; nor will we, after that day, import any
East-India tea from any part of the world; nor any molasses, syrups,
paneles, coffee, or pimento, from the British plantations or from
Dominica; nor wines from Madeira, or the Western Islands; nor foreign
indigo.

2. We will neither import nor purchase, any slave imported after the
first day of December next; after which time, we will wholly
discontinue the slave trade, and will neither be concerned in it
ourselves, nor will we hire our vessels, nor sell our commodities or
manufactures to those who are concerned in it.

3. As a non-consumption agreement, strictly adhered to, will be an
effectual security for the observation of the non-importation, we, as
above, solemnly agree and associate, that from this day, we will not
purchase or use any tea, imported on account of the East-India
company, or any on which a duty bath been or shall be paid; and from
and after the first day of March next, we will not purchase or use
any East-India tea whatever; nor will we, nor shall any person for or
under us, purchase or use any of those goods, wares, or merchandise,
we have agreed not to import, which we shall know, or have cause to
suspect, were imported after the first day of December, except such
as come under the rules and directions of the tenth article hereafter
mentioned.

4. The earnest desire we have not to injure our fellow-subjects in
Great-Britain, Ireland, or the West-Indies, induces us to suspend a
non-exportation, until the tenth day of September, 1775; at which
time, if the said acts and parts of acts of the British parliament
herein after mentioned, are not repealed, we will not directly or
indirectly, export any merchandise or commodity whatsoever to Great-
Britain, Ireland, or the West-Indies, except rice to Europe.

5. Such as are merchants, and use the British and Irish trade, will
give orders, as soon as possible, to their factors, agents and
correspondents, in Great-Britain and Ireland, not to ship any goods
to them, on any pretence whatsoever, as they cannot be received in
America; and if any merchant, residing in Great-Britain or Ireland,
shall directly or indirectly ship any goods, wares or merchandize,
for America, in order to break the said non-importation agreement, or
in any manner contravene the same, on such unworthy conduct being
well attested, it ought to be made public; and, on the same being so
done, we will not, from thenceforth, have any commercial connexion
with such merchant.

6. That such as are owners of vessels will give positive orders to
their captains, or masters, not to receive on board their vessels any
goods prohibited by the said non-importation agreement, on pain of
immediate dismission from their service.

7. We will use our utmost endeavours to improve the breed of sheep,
and increase their number to the greatest extent; and to that end, we
will kill them as seldom as may be, especially those of the most
profitable kind; nor will we export any to the West-Indies or
elsewhere; and those of us, who are or may become overstocked with,
or can conveniently spare any sheep, will dispose of them to our
neighbours, especially to the poorer sort, on moderate terms.

8. We will, in our several stations, encourage frugality, economy,
and industry, and promote agriculture, arts and the manufactures of
this country, especially that of wool; and will discountenance and
discourage every species of extravagance and dissipation, especially
all horse-racing, and all kinds of games, cock fighting, exhibitions
of shews, plays, and other expensive diversions and entertainments;
and on the death of any relation or friend, none of us, or any of our
families will go into any further mourning-dress, than a black crepe
or ribbon on the arm or hat, for gentlemen, and a black ribbon and
necklace for ladies, and we will discontinue the giving of gloves and
scarves at funerals.

9. Such as are venders of goods or merchandize will not take
advantage of the scarcity of goods, that may be occasioned by this
association, but will sell the same at the rates we have been
respectively accustomed to do, for twelve months last past. -And if
any vender of goods or merchandise shall sell such goods on higher
terms, or shall, in any manner, or by any device whatsoever, violate
or depart from this agreement, no person ought, nor will any of us
deal with any such person, or his or her factor or agent, at any time
thereafter, for any commodity whatever.

10. In case any merchant, trader, or other person, shall import any
goods or merchandize, after the first day of December, and before the
first day of February next, the same ought forthwith, at the election
of the owner, to be either re-shipped or delivered up to the
committee of the country or town, wherein they shall be imported, to
be stored at the risque of the importer, until the non-importation
agreement shall cease, or be sold under the direction of the
committee aforesaid; and in the last-mentioned case, the owner or
owners of such goods shall be reimbursed out of the sales, the first
cost and charges, the profit, if any, to be applied towards relieving
and employing such poor inhabitants of the town of Boston, as are
immediate sufferers by the Boston port-bill; and a particular account
of all goods so returned, stored, or sold, to be inserted in the
public papers; and if any goods or merchandizes shall be imported
after the said first day of February, the same ought forthwith to be
sent back again, without breaking any of the packages thereof.

11. That a committee be chosen in every county, city, and town, by
those who are qualified to vote for representatives in the
legislature, whose business it shall be attentively to observe the
conduct of all persons touching this association; and when it shall
be made to appear, to the satisfaction of a majority of any such
committee, that any person within the limits of their appointment has
violated this association, that such majority do forthwith cause the
truth of the case to be published in the gazette; to the end, that
all such foes to the rights of British-America may be publicly known,
and universally contemned as the enemies of American liberty; and
thenceforth we respectively will break off all dealings with him or
her.

12. That the committee of correspondence, in the respective colonies,
do frequently inspect the entries of their customhouses, and inform
each other, from time to time, of the true state thereof, and of
every other material circumstance that may occur relative to this
association.

13. That all manufactures of this country be sold at reasonable
prices, so- that no undue advantage be taken of a future scarcity of
goods.

14. And we do further agree and resolve that we will have no trade,
commerce, dealings or intercourse whatsoever, with any colony or
province, in North-America, which shall not accede to, or which shall
hereafter violate this association, but will hold them as unworthy of
the rights of freemen, and as inimical to the liberties of their
country.

And we do solemnly bind ourselves and our constituents, under the
ties aforesaid, to adhere to this association, until such parts of
the several acts of parliament passed since the close of the last
war, as impose or continue duties on tea, wine, molasses, syrups
paneles, coffee, sugar, pimento, indigo, foreign paper, glass, and
painters' colours, imported into America, and extend the powers of
the admiralty courts beyond their ancient limits, deprive the
American subject of trial by jury, authorize the judge's certificate
to indemnify the prosecutor from damages, that he might otherwise be
liable to from a trial by his peers, require oppressive security from
a claimant of ships or goods seized, before he shall be allowed to
defend his property, are repealed.-And until that part of the act of
the 12 G. 3. ch. 24, entitled "An act for the better securing his
majesty's dock-yards magazines, ships, ammunition, and stores," by
which any persons charged with committing any of the offenses therein
described, in America, may be tried in any shire or county within the
realm, is repealed-and until the four acts, passed the last session
of parliament, viz. that for stopping the port and blocking up the
harbour of Boston-that for altering the charter and government of the
Massachusetts-Bay-and that which is entitled "An act for the better
administration of justice, &c."-and that "for extending the limits of
Quebec, &c." are repealed. And we recommend it to the provincial
conventions, and to the committees in the respective colonies, to
establish such farther regulations as they may think proper, for
carrying into execution this association.

The foregoing association being determined upon by the Congress, was
ordered to be subscribed by the several members thereof; and
thereupon, we have hereunto set our respective names accordingly.
IN CONGRESS, PHILADELPHIA, October 20, 1774.
PEYTON RANDOLPH, President.

New Hampshire

Jno. Sullivan

Nathel. Folsom

Massachusetts Bay

Thomas Cushing

Saml. Adams

John Adams

Robt.Treat Paine

Rhode Island

Step. Hopkins

Sam: Ward

Connecticut

Elipht Dyer

Roger Sherman

Silas Deane

New York

Isaac Low

John Alsop

John Jay

Jas. Duane

Phil. Livingston

Wm. Floyd

Henry Wisner

S: Boerum

New Jersey

J. Kinsey

Wil: Livingston

Stepn. Crane

Richd. Smith

John De Hart

Pennsylvania

Jos. Galloway

John Dickinson

Cha Humphreys

Thomas Mifflin

E. Biddle

John Morton

Geo: Ross

The Lower Counties New Castle

Csar Rodney

Tho. M: Kean

Geo: Read

Maryland

Mat Tilghman

Ths. Johnson Junr.

Wm. Paca

Samuel Chase




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